Bill of Particulars (1845)
For a bit of (historical) perspective on what folks carried as they marched westward, to start new lives:
Bill of Particulars
For the emigrants leaving this government next spring. Each family consisting of five persons, to be provided with--
- 1 good strong wagon well covered with a light box.
- 2 or 3 good yoke of oxen between the age of 4 and 10 years
- 2 or more milch cows
- 1 or more good beefs
- 3 sheep if they can be obtained
- 1000 lbs of flour or other bread, or bread stuffs in good sacks.
- 1 good musket or rifle to each male over the age of twelve years
- 1 lb. poweder
- 4 lbs lead
- 1 do. Tea
- 5 do. coffee.
- 100 do. sugar
- 1 do. cayenne pepper
- 2 do. black do.
- 1/2 lb. mustard
- 10 do. rice for each family
- 1 do. cinnamon
- 1/2 do. cloves
- 1 doz. nutmegs
- 25 lbs. salt
- 5 lbs. saleratus
- 10 do. dried apples
- 1 bush. of beans
- A few lbs. of dried beef or bacon
- 5 lbs dried peaches
- 20 do. do. pumpkin
- 25 do. seed grain
- 1 gal. alcohol
- 20 lbs of soap each family
- 4 or 5 fish hooks and lines
- 15 lbs. iron and steel
- A few lbs of wrought nails
- One or more sets of saw or grist mill irons to company of 100 families
- 1 good seine and hook for each company
- 2 sets of pulley blocks and ropes to each company for crossing rivers.
- From 25 to 100 lbs. of farming and mechanical tools
- Cooking utensils to consist of bake kettle, frying pan, coffee pot, and tea kettle.
- Tin cups, plates, knives, forks, spoons, and pans as few as will do.
- A good tent and furniture to each 2 families.
- Clothing and bedding to each family, not to exceed 500 pounds.
- Ten extra teams for each company of 100 families.
N.b. In addition to the above list, horse and mule teams can be used as well as oxen. Many items of comfort and convenience will suggest themselves to a wise and provident people, and can be laid, in season; but none should start without filling the original bill.